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New born children have some deformities by birth. Some of them are - Clubfoot (the most common orthopaedic birth defect) Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH): Dislocated hip. Metatarsus adductus (curved foot or intoeing involving the feet) Spine deformities including scoliosis (side curvature or twisting) and kyphosis (bowing)

What causes birth deformities ?

Orthopaedic birth defects happen when bone and muscle tissue develops abnormally in babies during fetal development. According to the March of Dimes, the causes for about 60% of birth defects are unknown. Some common risk factors may include:

  • Abnormal genes inherited from a parent

  • Missing or abnormal genes caused by a chromosome disorder

  • Toxins including alcohol, cigarette smoke, illicit drugs, certain medications, radiation and certain chemicals

  • Severe maternal infections during pregnancy, including rubella (German measles), chicken pox, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)

  • Preexisting maternal conditions such as diabetes, thyroid disease, heart disease and high blood pressure

Types of birth deformities 

Many types of birth defects result from development problems in babies. They vary from mild to life-threatening, and the most common types include:

  • Clubfoot (the most common orthopaedic birth defect)

  • Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH): Dislocated hip

  • Metatarsus adductus (curved foot or intoeing involving the feet)

  • Spine deformities including scoliosis (side curvature or twisting) and kyphosis (bowing)

  • Osteogenesis imperfecta: Brittle-bone disease

  • Muscular dystrophy: Diseases affecting the skeletal muscles

  • Limb defects: Arms or legs that don’t develop normally or are missing

  • Bone infections

Symptoms of birth deformities 

Often, babies and children with orthopaedic birth defects may not show symptoms. Signs and symptoms to look for include:

  • Visible problems with a baby’s legs, feet, arms or hands

  • Spine twisting, curvature or bowing

  • Bones that break easily

  • Reduced movement in infants or difficulty walking in children

Treatment of birth deformities 

Our health care team will carefully examine your child to decide on the right treatment for the condition:

  • Braces, splints or casts to properly align bones and joints

  • Physical therapy to improve strength and range of motion

  • Occupational therapy to help build skills such as eating, getting dressed and walking

  • Surgery to adjust bones, muscles and tendons in severe conditions

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